Sunday, July 15, 2012

Texas as Texians Economic Impact Study

Over a year ago I took the time to do an extensive research study and comparative analysis as to the viability of restoring the Republic of Texas in its own sovereignty as a Nation.  It is lengthy however in view of so many problems and difficulties facing all citizens of Texas as well as those citizens in every State I hereby submit this for your thought and consideration:

Texans as Texians

Economic Impact Study
Introduction - Purpose of this report

To compare the current financial status in the State of Texas, based on facts/figures/demographic information provided by the State Comptroller and other reliable sources, to a reformed Republic of Texas in its sovereignty under “international law” as a Nation.

The information contained herein is to inform every “citizen” of and in the State of Texas rightfully “domiciled” exactly what a reformed Republic of Texas means in terms of their personal lives as it relates to this transition. This determination is based on the fundamentals of returning to a government of, for and by “we the people, one nation under God within a Constitution as founded by our forefathers with rights, privileges, freedoms and liberties inherent therein”. In so doing, the earned and deserved benefits any “citizen” domiciled in the State of Texas currently receive will not change in terms of substance. What will change is the government as the entity providing the benefit.

To effectively, efficiently and without any need to wait, hope, wish and pray in what you now know and live under in your current status in the State of Texas can and will change with your acknowledgment and declaration as a “citizen” in the Republic of Texas. Therefore, we strongly suggest you open your mind to the information herein provided and once again join hands as a TEXIAN in the future health and well being of yourself, your family and generations to come.

These are Key Points for your consideration as you read the information herein:

#1 - Texas was never ratified by the U.S. Senate by “treaty” under “international law”, it was in fact a "treaty" for annexation therefore there is no need for any act of “secession”. We have remained Texians. (note: if you have questions in this regard please go to the last section of this article titled "U.S. annexation of Texas" read it and then decide if it is fact or rhetoric)

#2 - The only “change” is a government known as “Republic of Texas”, not as the State of Texas.

#3 - Nothing changes in terms of your “earned/deserved” benefits such as “social security retirement”, “military veteran/retirement”, “government service retirement”, “compensation for injury related to job performance”, “medical needs related to Medicare/Medicaid, handicaps, insurance/coverage”.

#4 - Administration/management of the services/benefits as mentioned in #3 will be under local and what is now known as County jurisdiction in rural areas and Precincts within urban/more populated Counties. Note: Counties will become what we now think of as States in terms of territorial authority within the Republic of Texas.

#5 - Republic of Texas elected representatives will administrate/manage and serve in the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of government within the limits and boundaries of the Constitution, Bill of Rights and amendments thereto. These include active military, Texas Rangers, Highway and Border Patrol, Prisons, InterRepublic roads/bridges/transportation, universities/colleges, communications, utilities, 0il&Gas exploration/production.

PART 1 - State of Texas Economy

Annual Financial Report, Texas Comptroller, for year ended August 31,2009


Texas Fact Book, 2010 Legislative Budget Board

These are the pertinent facts included:
Biennial revenue estimated “State of Texas” by source

In Millions:
2008-09 2010-11 % Change

Tax collections $79,180.4 $77,726.7 (0.2)

Federal receipts 57,098.3 67,335.5 (7.9)

Fees, fines, licenses, and penalties 17,426.0 13,795.1 (20.8)

Interest and investment income 3,655.6 6,309.3 (7.3)

Lottery 3,179.4 3,194.0 (0.5)

Land income 1,838.1 1 ,740.5 (5.3)

Other revenue sources 8,890.8 10,215.2 (14.9)
Total, Net Revenue $171,268.5 $180,316.2 (5.3)

Tax collections source

Sales Tax $42,618.2 $43,788.5 (2.8)

Oil Production & Regulation Taxes 2,321.4 1,829.6 (21.2)

Natural Gas Production Tax 4,092.4 1,993.7 (51.3)

Motor Fuels Taxes 6,134.3 6,300.1 (2.7)

Motor Vehicle Sales & Rental 5,942.5 5,710.5 (3.9)

Corporation Franchise Taxes 8,701.7 8,702.3 (0.1)

Cigarette & Tobacco Taxes 3,003.7 2,957.7 (1.5)

Alcoholic Beverage Taxes 1,581.0 1,703.2 (7.7)

Insurance Occupation Taxes 2,707.5 2,677.2 (1.1)

Utility Taxes 1,022.8 1,045.3 (2.2)

Inheritance Tax 7.6 0.0 (100.0)

Hotel-Motel Tax 714.5 724.8 (1.5)

Other Taxes 332.9 293.9 (11 .7)

Total, Tax Collections $79,180.4 $77,726.7 (1.8)

Note: Totals may not sum due to rounding.

Source: Comptroller of Public Accounts.

2010–11 Biennium estimated for “State of Texas”

Your Tax Dollar Revenue and Costs as a Percentage

Note: Percentages calculated based on constitutionally and statutorily dedicated

tax revenues and appropriations in the 2010–11 General Appropriations Act, as

modified by other legislation.

Sources: Legislative Budget Board; Comptroller of Public Accounts.

Where your Tax Dollar Goes:

Agencies of Education - 56.3%

The Legislature - 0.4%

Health and Human Services - 22.8%

Business and Economic Development - 6.7%

The Judiciary - 0.5%

Natural Resources - 1.2%

Regulatory - 0.3%

General Government - 2.5%

Public Safety and Criminal Justice - 9.4%

General Provisions - less than 0.1%

Total = $77,726.7 Million

Where your Tax Dollar Comes From:

Motor Vehicle Sales and Rental Taxes - 7.4%

Motor Fuels Taxes - 8.1%

Oil and Natural Gas Production Taxes - 4.9%

Insurance Occupation Taxes - 3.4%

Other Taxes - 4.9%

Cigarette, Tobacco and Alcoholic Beverages Taxes - 3.8%

Franchise Taxes - 11.2%

Sales Tax - 56.3%

Total = $77,726.7 Million

Texas’ Export Markets

Source: World Institute for Strategic Economic Research.

Calendar Year 2008

Total = $192.1 billion

Canada - 10%

Mexico - 32.3%

Colombia - 1.6%

Venezuela - 1.8%

Brazil - 3.1%

Singapore - 2.8%

Taiwan - 2%

South Korea - 2.7%

Japan - 1.9%

China - 4.4%

Netherlands - 3.7%

Germany - 15%

United Kingdom - 1.8%

Belgium - 1.9%

All Others - 28.5%

Texas Export Totals in comparison to the 15 most populous States 2007-2008 in Billions:

STATE: 2007 2008 %Change

Texas $168.2 $192.1 (14.1)

California 134.3 144.8 (7.8)

New York 71.1 79.6 (11.9)

Washington 66.4 66.9 (0.8)

Florida 44.9 54.3 (21.0)

Illinois 48.9 53.4 (9.3)

Ohio 42.6 45.5 (6.9)

Michigan 44.6 44.9 (0.7)

New Jersey 30.8 35.5 (15.1)

Pennsylvania 29.2 34.4 (18.0)

Massachusetts 25.4 28.3 (11.6)

Georgia 23.4 27.5 (17.7)

North Carolina 23.4 25.1 (7.4)

Arizona 19.2 19.7 (2.7)

Virginia 16.9 18.9 (12.3)

50 State Average $ 22.1 $ 24.6 (15.5)

State of Texas Assets & Resources evaluation as a comparative % of U.S. economy 2009:

Source/website -

Note: you can go to this website and see the subcategories within each industry.

Industry/Business % Texas %U.S. Texas avg weekly wage

Agriculture, Forestry & Food 2.09 2.59 $ 708.85

Biotechnology, Life Sciences & medical 7.25 8.70 1,042.23

Apparel, Leather, Wood & Non-durables 1.12 1.67 746.24

Business & Financial Services 14.52 14.11 1,065.03

Corporate HQ, Admin & Government 7.32 9.54 1,037.06

Distribution, Transportation & Logistics 4.51 3.66 1,000.57

Education, Training & Personal

Development 12.09 11.28 684.44

Electronics & Applied Computer

Equipment 2.58 2.32 1,527.75

Energy, Mining & Related Support

Services 2.44 0.85 2,265.12

General Line Store Retailers 8.28 8.21 451.59

Heavy & Special Trade Construction 6.28 5.08 896.51

Legal, Protective & Human Support

Services 3.40 4.58 728.19

Personal & Residential Services 5.36 4.89 449.35

Petroleum Refining & Chemicals 2.24 1.81 1,243.06

Production Support & Industrial

Machinery 3.60 3.03 1,126.34

Telecommunications & Information

Services 3.49 4.02 1,426.23

Tourism, Hospitality & Leisure 10.21 10.37 348.46

Transportation Equipment 3.20 3.23 878.96


State of Texas Demographic information:

Source: U.S. Census (adjusted to an approximation for 2010)

Estimated ethnic population

Hispanic - 36.5% 9,125,000

Blacks - 11.9% 2,975,000

Asian/Pacific - 3.6% 900,000

Native American - 0.8% 200,000

White/Caucasian - 47.2% 11,800,000

Total estimated 25,000,000

Estimated population by age group

0 to 4 years 2,075,000

5 to 17 years 4,825,000

18 to 44 years 9,725,000

45 to 64 years 5,825,000

65 and over 2,550,000

Estimated population receiving social benefits/aid/support annually as a

% of each category falling within the poverty line (calculations in dollars)

16.4% of adults 4,100,000

23.2% of children 5,800,000

12% of Senior citizens 3,000,000

51.6% of population 12,900,000

x avg benefit/month $ 1,000

$12,900,000,000 (12.9 billion)

x 12 months $154,800,000,000 (154.8 billion)

Note: These figures do not include military, government or social security recipients above poverty level as defined herein:

The 2009 Poverty Guidelines for the
48 Contiguous States and the District of Columbia

Persons in family

Poverty guideline

1 $10,830
2 14,570
3 18,310
4 22,050
5 25,790
6 29,530
7 33,270
8 37,010
For families with more than 8 persons, add $3,740 for each additional person.




What can we do as Texans in effective change in light of the Federal government in its onslaught to our lives, our State and our Nation?
Currently, it is stated and supported, Texas would be ranked approximately 7th in Gross National Product(GNP) as a nation in the world economy and 2nd in per capita. Texas is currently in the same league as some of the world's largest economies in GNP and per capita income with countries such as Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, China and without the State of Texas the United States GNP would drop significantly. Texas is, as a nation, in economic terms larger and greater than either Canada or Mexico. We know Texas is growing in population, as diverse in industry as it is in ethnic and urban growth. We know Federal government mandates have and are working to undermine, not only our State sovereignty, but the strength and values within our economy and citizens. Much of this growth has been primarily due to so many people, corporations moving to our State in recognition of our economy as compared to the States in which they were domiciled. However, even in weighing the valiant efforts of our Governor, Attorney General, Lt. Governor, State Comptroller and many others in our legislative representation to stop, thwart and take the actions necessary and needed, we are losing ground and eroding our economic capability to sustain, maintain and thrive as a State. There are those in Washington D.C. in control of governing the United States of America who are and have been systematically destroying the very foundation of our freedoms, rights and liberties.

The following information is for your perusal, understanding and appreciation in why, what and how a change back to the “Republic of Texas” will in fact be far more beneficial to the economic, social and environmental well being of all Texas citizens.

There are common questions/concerns asked as it relates to restoring the “Republic of Texas”. These are addressed within Part 2 of this study and we repeat, read it with an open mind, not that you shouldn’t question it, but it can be done and accomplished thru the will, determination, passion and purpose no different than our forefathers in knowing, recognizing and then taking the actions necessary for implementation. It’s every YOU, ME, NEIGHBOR, FRIEND, PARENT and GRANDPARENT in making this REALITY quicker, more effective and efficient than any other alternative!

Texas would be better off if WE controlled our money. Other states have introduced legislation to coin their own gold and silver for payment of state obligations. This would also cut the Federal Reserve out of the racket. Why should Wall Street get the interest from our loans? Why shouldn't we fund things ourselves? This is how Republic of Texas can effectively establish a currency and banking system that truly is for the citizens.

Part 2

Comparing Economic Viability - State of Texas as Republic of Texas
Estimated Revenue, Republic of as compared to State of, by Source in millions:

Source: Tax State of Texas Republic of Texas %change

Sales @8.25% @15% (45.0)

Inside Texas $ 22,035.8 $ 40,065.15 (45.1)

Out of Texas 3.9 7.20 (45.9)

Motor Vehicle Sales/Rentals 2,601.0 0 (100)

Motor Fuels 3,032.0 0 (100)

Franchise 4,250.0 0 (100)

Insurance 1,257.0 0 (100)

Natural Gas Production 1,407.0 0 (100)

Oil Production 884.5 0 (100)

Inheritance 2.0 0 (100)

Utility 518.0 0 (100)

Hotel 343.0 0 (100)

Other 156.0 0 (100)

May be necessary to pay for medical benefits and added as additional revenue:

Cigarette and Tobacco 1,556.0 1,556.0  (no change)              

Alcoholic Beverage 796.9 796.9 (no change)

Other Revenue Sources in the form of Collections:

Licenses, Fees, Permits,

Fines & Penalties 7,198.0 7,198.0 (no change)      

Interest & Investment Income 1,346.0 1,346.0 (no change)

Net Lottery Proceeds 1,581.9 1,581.9 (no change)

Sales of Goods & Services 427.0 427.0 (no change)

Claims Settlements 564.7 564.7 (no change)

Land Income 788.0 788.0 (no change)

Contributions to Employee

Benefits .2 0 (100)

Other Sources 3,695.8 (unable to identify, questionable)

Federal Income 30,859.9 0 (none)

Total without Exports $ 85,148.6 $ 58,026.6 (32.0)

Export Revenue:

Mexico 62,048.3

Canada 19,210.0

All Others 110,841.7

Estimated Total Revenues $277,248.6

Expenditures: Net for State of Texas by Function/Department - Fiscal year 2009

(All Funds, excluding Trust)


Government Function Amount % of Total

General government - Executive

Departments $ 2,475,761,834 (2.8)

General government - Legislative 141,750,457 (0.2)

General government - Judicial 254,971,650 (0.3)

Total General government $ 2,872,483,941 (3.3)

Education 33,120,732,460 (37.4)

Employee Benefits 2,928,101,148 (3.3)

Health and Human Services 33,492,032,588 (37.8)

Public Safety and Corrections 5,043,393,457 (5.7)

Transportation 6,722,847,158 (7.6)

Natural Resources/Recreational Services 2,069,187,656 (2.3)

Regulatory Agencies 356,325,497 (0.4)

Lottery Winnings Paid ** 481,322,426 (0.6)

Debt Service 1,005,304,499 (1.1)

Capital Outlay 473,903,973 (0.5)


** Lottery Winnings Paid does not include payments made to retailers.

Totals may not sum due to rounding.

Part 2(A)

For those who enjoy delving into the many costs and complexities of Federal funds awarded and expended by the State of Texas, these are shown herein in Part 2(B). If, however, you do not care to go thru these details let’s attempt to conclude the economic analysis and comparisons within the parameters of our priorities and major concerns as citizens. In doing this we will attempt to address the most common concerns and questions as to the overall validity in restoration and government as the “Republic of Texas”.

The most significant priorities with most “rightful” citizens of Texas are:

Employment - the most significant impact on any economy is in creating, maintaining and sustaining good jobs. This is the key foundation to an economically healthy, growing society. Without good jobs, nothing can survive or function.

Less and more efficient, effective Government - good government is only as good as it performs in serving “we the people” and “we the people” starts in the knowledge, willingness and commitment in the hearts and minds of the citizens in their local community in electing those to serve. Citizens recognize and know who has earned and deserved any form of assistance or benefits and it starts within the local community.

Taxes - “taxation without representation” is an age old axiom and today our society is overburdened with taxes and representation in the form of government. We all recognize we need forms of revenue to provide for; our protection, those who serve our community and society, education of our children but we DO NOT need more taxes, we need to eliminate the waste, regulations and basis on which we are being taxed.

Future - Every citizen; whether a young man/woman in school, working or looking for a job, a senior citizen living on retirement, those with medical problems/concerns or as a family(parent/grandparent) with a job are justifiably concerned about their future. For the well being of all of these “rightful” citizens we must do everything within our power in restoring a government to lessen their doubt, fear and questions to revitalize the reality of hope and dreams in our society.

Common questions and concerns related to the viability of restoring our “Republic”:
Why not stay with the State of Texas as our government?
The answer is as simple as it is complex in the how and why we must take this action as the only alternative with “real” effectiveness. This is exactly the purpose of this study to show the dependence we have, as “rightful” citizens, become under government as we now know it. Our government has simply become a complexity of regulations, rules, laws, statutes, fraud and corruption to the degree and extent even those we feel are trying with some integrity and purpose to thwart or stop the efforts of far too many bent on destroying our State as we now know it. Politicians depend on “we the people”, not the other way around, and when “we the people” unite it absolutely changes the “environment of Politics”.

If we did take this type of action, why not “secede”?
We have done an extensive and exhaustive study in determination of restoring the “Republic of Texas” as the only viable and legally recognized action that will and does meet every aspect of “international law”. Anyone can and should read, review, and understand the “legal” basis for the “sovereignty” of any nation to become a part of another. This is only accomplished by and thru “treaty”, not a "treaty for annexation" and the ratification thereof.
You can read this in its entirety as "U.S. annexation of Texas" at the conclusion of this article.

What about those we have elected and in office and do feel are serving the best interest of our State of Texas and United States government?

The only reason those who are serving us in office in this category would disagree is because they themselves are dependent on government as usual or not opening their mind to the reality of this as being a “legal” and effective way to stop the onslaught of government in size and efficiency. There is absolutely no reason we couldn’t elect them in a comparable position within the government for the “Republic of Texas” quicker than any other alternative we now know.

Why would it change what we’ve seen and become to know in government in terms of the fraud and corruption, isn’t one just as bad as the other?

There is no guarantee nor do we feel any form of government isn’t subject to fraud and corruption as well as misrepresentation, misdirection or misguidance in whatever form.

What is important is the real need to make government and those who represent us accountable and responsible for their actions in a quick and decisive manner. To this end, we could effectively make changes in the form of a “contract” to serve along with their “Oath of Office”. In conjunction with these, any servant of the public would be immediately removed from any position of authority until such time as the related “impropriety” was determined under the jurisdiction and in accordance with “common law”.

What risk is there in losing any of my benefits I now get from our Federal government?

First, we feel everyone who is receiving any benefits from or thru the Federal or State government is in risk of losing them. It’s more a question of when than if as we all can easily see our government is broke. State of Texas in just next year will have to overcome a deficit of over $10 billion and that’s being conservative. The United States is so overwhelmingly in debt the numbers are almost as unbelievable as they are astounding. What we know and may feel secure with as U.S. currency is only worth the paper it’s printed on and we all can easily see there is nothing supporting it but a United States printing press known as the Federal Reserve.

Secondly, yes you can buy gold or silver if you can afford it in a quantity sufficient to sustain what you need in value to replace your U.S. dollars? There is nothing wrong with having gold or silver as they are historically established and used as a basis for trade. This is why many gold and silver coins have been put into circulation by governments throughout the years. The Republic of Texas will also mint this form of currency and it will have a real and recognized value in terms of acceptance in world markets.

Most importantly we feel those who have “rightfully” earned and deserve these benefits can, in fact, be far more secure in how we can maintain these to “rightful citizens” in the “Republic of Texas”. This is the primary purpose for this study and the recognition of what we can do in eliminating the waste and cost in our current government with revenues sufficient to support the “real, earned, deserved” benefits for our citizens. As best as can be identified within the maze of “statistical” data and information as contained herein in moving to a “fair” tax basis to effectively meet the obligations of operating, managing, sustaining and retaining the benefits to the citizens as the Republic of Texas can be accomplished with “common sense for the common good”. This combined with import revenues, new companies coming to Texas because of less government, less taxes stimulates every area of our economy in a far more positive and productive manner. Governance by and thru “local” jurisdiction, priorities and needs promotes real government of, for and by the people just as the intent of our Founding Fathers.

What about the issues we are facing in Texas such as “illegal immigration”, protecting our borders, our relationship with other States and/or the United States and other countries when or if we once again become the “Republic of Texas”?

First, let us address what we are and have seen in respect to governments any and everywhere. Whether we agree or in some ways don’t agree, most of what we see today in government is nothing more than politics over real concern for the people they are supposed to serve. In terms of Texas, the United States and other States within, it’s more about “party politics” as Republicans, Democrats, Conservatives, Independents, Moderates, Liberals, etc. in regard to elections over the real needs of our society. This is not only costly in terms of time, money and resources to win elections but it is far more costly in terms of any real and needed change. We are inundated with political rhetoric by politicians and media aimed at staying in office or getting elected to office.

In addressing “illegal immigration”, most border States know the depth of the problem and even in attempts to wake up others have passed legislation in an effort to control or solve the problem. It has simply become a political nightmare with no real solution thus far and it’s been years in the making. The following is a copy of a possible solution for your review and understanding in conjunction to how we can act on this immediately as the “Republic of Texas”:

“The premise, Texans can better solve the problem in determining the "legality" of its citizens.

The proposal as it relates to illegal immigrants; if in whatever manner any person is in violation of any law, has 30 days to vacate the premises peacefully. Bear in mind, they somehow got here so they can somehow get back to where they came from. One exception, if said person has been domiciled in Texas for a minimum of 3 years as a productive/law abiding member in the County of domicile but never established citizenship, said person can report to the County Clerks office and under the jurisdiction of the County Judge proceed to become a "legal" citizen. In such case, the citizens in the local communities within each County can present to the Court as witnesses for and to the reason, validity, viability of said person and their immediate family (immediate family defined as spouse and any children under the age of 18 years). In the event said person or any family member over the age of 5 years as defined does not speak and understand English, said persons have a 6 month probationary period to learn, speak and understand English to fulfill the obligation for citizenship. In summation for the purpose and intent of said proposal: There are good people, who can and have worked to improve their lives for themselves and their families without injuring, hurting, harming anyone. They are in many ways a needed backbone in our society as productive members. However, in the process of this, we as Texans need to recognize it's not what you get from government, it's what you contribute or have contributed in the form of productivity or service. Those within our society who only use or take government benefits are far more costly to any society. “

In regard to other States; there is nothing preventing any State from joining the nation of the “Republic of Texas” if such action is “legal” under the “laws” of their respective States and they can contribute economically to the well being of our citizens. Also, a new boundary will be formed to recognize the borders of neighboring States should it be requested in recognition of their “sovereignty” as a State within the United States of America.

In regard to the United States; we desire a peaceful relationship based on our mutual interest and concerns. In this we will embrace our citizens who are active military to declare their allegiance and duty to protect the “Republic of Texas” and remain in active duty and service to our nation. This applies to our National Guard, Coast Guard and all other “Armed Forces” within our borders who are now in service. Those citizens currently in military service anywhere in the world can return to Texas as quickly as possible to conclude or remain in service within and for the “Republic of Texas”.

What would we do as a Republic of Texas citizen with our U.S. dollars, assets and liabilities?

Not many realize or even knowledgeable the State of North Dakota has been utilizing their own banking and currency for quite some time. We eluded to this earlier in this study and here is the website once again. This is how Republic of Texas can effectively establish a currency and banking system that truly is for the citizens. We can certainly use this as the model for converting U.S. currency to Republic of Texas currency and in so doing handle any personal financial affairs in accordance with the accepted and recognized value supporting it.

Part 2(B)

State of Texas Summary of Federal Expenditures by State Agency*

Notes to Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Awards For the Year Ended August 31, 2009

(1) Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
(a) Reporting Entity
The Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Awards (Schedule) includes the activity of all federal award programs administered by the state of Texas (State), except for four components units, for the fiscal year ended Aug. 31, 2009. Those component units, the Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation, Texas A&M Research Foundation, Texas Health Insurance Risk Pool of the Department of Insurance and Boll Weevil Foundation of the Department of Agriculture, are subject to separate audits in compliance with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-133, Audits of States, Local Governments and Non-Profit Organizations. The federal transactions for these four entities are excluded from the Schedule.

The Texas A&M Research Foundation is a blended component unit of the Texas A&M University System and is included as part of the primary government in the State of Texas Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR). The Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation, Texas Health Insurance Risk Pool and Boll Weevil Foundation are discrete component units and are not part of the primary government in the CAFR.

Federal award programs include expenditures, pass-throughs to non-state agencies (i.e. payments to subrecipients), non-monetary assistance and loan programs.

(b) Basis of Presentation

The Schedule presents total federal awards expended for each individual federal program in accordance with OMB Circular A-133, Audits of States, Local Governments and Non-Profit Organizations. Federal award program titles are reported as presented in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA). Federal award program titles not presented in the CFDA are identified by Federal agency number followed by (.XXX).

(c) Basis of Accounting

The expenditures for each of the federal financial assistance programs are presented in the Schedule on the accounting basis as presented on the fund financial statements. For entities with governmental funds, expenditures are presented on a modified accrual basis. For entities with proprietary funds, expenditures are presented on the accrual basis.

Both the modified accrual and accrual basis of accounting incorporate an estimation approach to determine the amount of expenditures incurred if not yet billed by a vendor. Thus, those federal programs presenting negative amounts on the Schedule are the result of prior year estimates being overstated and/or reimbursements due back to the grantor.

(d) Matching Costs

Matching costs, the nonfederal share of certain program costs, are not included in the Schedule, except for the State’s share of unemployment insurance (See Note 4).

(2) Relationship to Federal Financial Reports

The regulations and guidelines governing the preparation of Federal financial reports vary by Federal agency and among programs administered by the same agency. Accordingly, the amounts reported in the Federal financial reports do not necessarily agree with the amounts reported in the accompanying Schedule which is prepared on the basis explained in Note 1(c).

(3) Relations to Revenues in the State of Texas' Fund Financial Statements

The following is a reconciliation of total federal awards expended as reported in the Schedule to federal revenues reported in the fund financial statements.

Federal Revenues

Statement of Revenues, Expenditures,

and Changes in Fund Balances – Governmental
Funds, Federal Revenue $35,699,121,642

Statement of Revenues, Expenses, and Changes
in Net Assets – Proprietary Funds, Federal Revenue 4,239,879,452

Statement of Revenues, Expenses, and Changes
in Net Assets – Proprietary Funds, Capital Contributions – Federal 2,191,907

Statement of Changes in Fiduciary Net Assets 101,504,970

Total Federal Revenue per Fund Financial Statements $40,042,697,971

Reconciling Items

Non-Cash Federal Commodities/Vaccines/Surplus
Property/Other (Note 6) $ 518,890,949

Various Loans Processed by
Universities and Agencies (Note 5) 2,431,053,290

State Unemployment Funds (Note 4) 3,346,610,935

Cash rebates to participants in the Special Supplemental

Food Program for Woman Infants and Children (WIC) (Note 7) 237,811,384

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Programs

Not Subject to OMB A-133 Reporting Requirements (Note 8) (41,407,996)

Other * (98,883,897)

Blended Component Unit not included in the Schedule of
Expenditures of Federal Awards (Note 1(a)) (173,075,649)

Expenditures per Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Awards $46,263,696,987

* This amount includes deductions of $1,299,398 for fixed fee contracts; deductions of $1,970,464 for vendor transactions; deductions of $106,550,625 for Medicare portion of Part D which is not subject to OMB A-133 since it does not include any Medicaid funds; and additions of $10,936,522 for Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities. An addition of $68 is also included for rounding in the Schedule.

(4) Unemployment Insurance Funds

State unemployment tax revenues and the government and non-profit contributions in lieu of state taxes (State UI funds) must be deposited into the Unemployment Trust Fund in the U.S. Treasury. Use of these funds is restricted to pay benefits under the federally approved State Unemployment Law. State UI funds as well as federal funds are reported in the Schedule under CFDA 17.225. The State portion in the amount of $3.3 billion is a reconciling item in the reconciliation of the Schedule to revenues in the fund financial statements (See Note 3).

(5) Federally Funded Loan/Credit Enhancement Programs

The State participates in various federally funded loan and credit enhancement programs. The programs can be grouped into three broad categories:
Federally Funded Student Loan Programs
Other Federally Funded Loan Programs
Federally Funded Credit Enhancement Program

a) Federally Funded Student Loan Programs

The State participates in student loan programs on which the federal government imposes continuing compliance requirements. Additionally, the State participates in other student loan programs that do not require continuing compliance. The charts below summarize activity by the State for federally funded student loan programs:

CFDA Program Name Ending Balances of New Loans

number Previous Year's Loans Processed

Student Loan Programs with Continuing Compliance Requirements

84.038 Federal Perkins Loan Program (Perkins) $153,859,578 $16,598,316

93.342 Health Professions Student Loans (HPSL) 11,881,905 1,656,272

93.364 Nursing Student Loans 647,252 422,132

Total for Student Loan Programs with

Continuing Compliance Requirements $166,388,735 $18,676,720

Other Student Loan Programs

84.032 Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) $1,968,934,912

84.268 Federal Direct Student Loans (Direct Loans) 433,102,728

93.264 Nursing Faculty Loan Program 260,972

Total Other Student Loan Programs $2,402,298,612

New student loans processed totaling $2.4 billion are included in the Schedule and are part of a reconciling item on Note 3.

The Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP, CFDA 84.032) and the Federal Direct Student Loans Program (Direct Loans, CFDA 84.268) do not require universities to disburse funds. The proceeds are disbursed by lending institutions for FFELP and by the federal government for Direct Loans. For both programs, loan guarantees are issued by the Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation or other guarantee agencies. The federal government reinsures these guarantee agencies.

The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) participates in the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP, CFDA 84.032L) as a servicer of the loans. During fiscal 2009, THECB received $250.5 thousand in interest subsidy payments that are included in the Schedule. As of Aug. 31, 2009, THECB services approximately $52.2 million of FFELP loans. New loans processed totaling $2.3 million are included in the Schedule and are part of a reconciling item on Note 3.

b) Other Federally Funded Loan Programs

Home Investment Partnerships Program (HOME, CFDA 14.239)

The Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs receives formula grant funding under the Home Investment Partnerships Program (HOME, CFDA 14.239). The purpose of this program is to expand the supply of decent, safe, affordable housing through partnerships with units of local governments and non-profit entities. New loans processed totaling $7.7 million are included in the Schedule and are part of a reconciling item on Note 3.

Community Development Block Grant (CDBG, CFDA 14.228)

The Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs receives formula grant funding under the Community Development Block Grant program (CDBG, CFDA 14.228). Funding under this program is primarily related to disaster recovery. New loans processed totaling $75.3 thousand are included in the Schedule and are part of a reconciling item on Note 3.

Clean Water State Revolving Funds (CWSRF, CFDA 66.458)

The Texas Water Development Board receives capitalization grants to create and maintain Clean Water State Revolving Funds programs (CWSRF, CFDA 66.458). The State can use capitalization grant funds to provide a long-term source of State financing for construction of wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of other water quality management activities.

The CWSRF provides loans at interest rates lower than what can be obtained through commercial markets. Fixed rate loans offer net long-term interest rates of 0.95 percent below market rates for those applicants financing the origination charge. For applicants who pay for the origination charge from other sources, the interest rate is 0.70 percent below the rate the borrower would receive in the open market at the time of closing. The maximum repayment period for most CWSRF loans is 20 years from completion of construction. Capitalization loans processed for CWSRF for the year ended Aug. 31, 2009, were approximately $13.6 million and are included in the Schedule. CWSRF outstanding loans, with no continuing audit requirements, at Aug. 31, 2009, were approximately $2.6 billion. For the year ended Aug. 31, 2009, there were no capitalization loans processed under ARRA funding for CWSRF.

Drinking Water State Revolving Funds (DWSRF, CFDA 66.468)

The Texas Water Development Board receives capitalization grants to create and maintain Drinking Water State Revolving Funds programs (DWSRF, CFDA 66.468). The State can use capitalization grant funds to establish a revolving loan fund. The revolving loan fund can assist public water systems in financing the costs of infrastructure needed to achieve or maintain compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. These compliance requirements ensure the public health objectives of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

The DWSRF can provide loans at interest rates lower than the market or provide other types of financial assistance for qualified communities, local agencies and private entities. The DWSRF offers a net long-term interest lending rate of 1.2 percent below the rate the borrower would receive in the open market at the time of closing. The maximum repayment period for most DWSRF loans is 20 years from the completion of construction. Capitalization loans processed for DWSRF for the year ended Aug. 31, 2009, were approximately $56.4 million and are included in the Schedule. DWSRF outstanding loans, with no continuing audit requirements, at Aug. 31, 2009, were approximately $349.2 million. For the year ended Aug. 31, 2009, there were no capitalization loans processed under ARRA funding for DWSRF.

The chart below summarizes activity by the State for the two revolving loan programs.

CFDA number Program Name New Loans Processed

66.458 Clean Water State Revolving Funds (CWSRF) $13,610,214

66.468 Drinking Water State Revolving Funds (DWSRF) 56,352,382

Total New Loans Processed $69,962,596

Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA, CFDA 20.223)

The United States Department of Transportation has agreed to lend the Texas Department of Transportation up to $916.8 million under a secured loan agreement to pay or reimburse a portion of the costs of the Central Texas Turnpike System’s "2002 Project." The secured loan agreement was entered into pursuant to the provisions of the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA). As of Aug. 31, 2009, $972 million of the TIFIA note payable was outstanding. This loan program is not subject to OMB A-133 reporting and is not included in the Schedule.

c) Federally Funded Credit Enhancement Program

Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities (CFDA 84.354)

In 2005, the Texas Public Finance Authority Charter School Finance Corporation formed a consortium with the Texas Education Agency and the Texas Charter School Resource Center to apply for a federal grant to assist charter schools. In November 2006, the consortium received $10.1 million in federal grants to establish the Texas Credit Enhancement Program (“TCEP”). The $10.9 million of federal grants received are subject to continuing audit requirements and are included in the Schedule. In addition, approximately $248.5 thousand of interest earned on the federal grant monies drawn down in fiscal 2009 is also included in the Schedule.

The TCEP provides credit enhancement to eligible charter schools by funding debt service reserve funds for bonds issued on behalf of the schools to finance education facilities. As of Aug. 31, 2009, $10.2 million of the federal grant funds had been allocated to various charter schools.

(6) Non-Monetary Assistance

The State is the recipient of federal financial assistance programs that do not result in cash receipts or disbursements and are therefore not recorded in the State’s fund financial statements. Awards received by the State which include cash and non-cash amounts are included in the Schedule as follows:

CFDA Number Program Name Grant Awards

10.555 National School Lunch Program $120,807,663

10.565 Commodity Supplemental Food Program 3,454,476

10.569 Emergency Food Assistance Program 44,893,650

39.003 Donation of Federal Surplus Personal Property 12,150,530

93.268 Immunization Grants 337,584,630

Total $518,890,949

(7) Rebates from the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

During fiscal 2009, the State received cash rebates from infant formula manufacturers in the amount of approximately $237.8 million on sales of formula to participants in the WIC program (CFDA 10.557), which are netted against total expenditures included in the Schedule. Rebate contracts with infant formula manufacturers are authorized by Code of Federal Regulations, Title 7: Agriculture, Chapter II, Subchapter A, Part 246.16(m) as a cost containment measure. Rebates represent a reduction of expenditures previously incurred for WIC food benefit costs. Applying the rebates received to such costs enabled the State to extend program benefits to more participants than could have been serviced this fiscal year in the absence of the rebate contract.

(8) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Programs Not Subject to OMB A-133 Reporting Requirements

The State receives federal funding from certain programs under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) which are not subject to continuing compliance requirements. For the year ended Aug. 31, 2009, $41.4 million of federal funds not subject to continuing compliance requirements were received. These funds are not included in the Schedule.

(9) Depository Libraries for Government Publications

Several State agencies and universities participate as depository libraries in the Government Printing Office's Depository Libraries for Government Publications program (CFDA 40.001). The State agencies and universities are the legal custodian of government publications, which remain the property of the federal government. The publications are not assigned value by the Government Printing Office.

(10) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

The reported expenditures for benefits under the SNAP program (CFDA 10.551) are supported by both regularly appropriated funds and incremental funding made available under section 101 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The mechanism used by USDA to make these funds available to States does not enable a State to validly disaggregate the regular and Recovery Act components of this figure. At the national aggregate level, however, Recovery Act funds account for approximately 15 percent of USDA's total expenditures for SNAP benefits in the Federal fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 2009.

Total Expenditures of Federal Awards For the Year Ended August 31, 2009
Broken down by each State Agency
(Values are rounded prior to totaling in dollars)

Pass-through to
State Agency Non-State entities Expenditures Total____

Adjutant General 108,066,671 108,066,671

Dept of Agriculture 500,236,754 16,682,960 516,919,714

Alcoholic Beverage

107,792 1,030,524 1,138,316

Animal Health Commission 7,091,020 7,091,020

Commission on the Arts 1,019,185 1,019,185

Attorney General 7,692,573 213,966,399 221,658,972

School for Blind/Visually

2,939,753 2,939,753

Cancer Prevention and

Research Institute
9,938 9,938

Commission on Jail Standards 25,333 25,333

Commission on State

Emergency Communications
87,586 87,586

Comptroller of Public Accounts 10,000 10,000

Comptroller State - Fiscal 3,942,252 3,942,252

Comptroller - State Energy

Conservation Office
1,501,625 1,388,910 2,890,535

Texas Higher Education

Coordinating Board
28,169,643 10,713,736 38,883,379

Office of Court Administration 5,933,017 5,933,017

Department of Criminal Justice 36,833,090 36,833,090

School for the Deaf 36,833,090 36,833,090

Department of Aging and

Disability Services
77,110,956 4,110,010,491 4,187,121,447

Department of Assistive and

Rehabilitative Services
118,825,592 378,768,814 497,594,406

Department of Family and

Protective Services
25,566,280 793,203,065 818,769,345

Department of State Health

419,199,026 1,511,474,128 1,930,673,154

Texas Facilities

11,645,156 13,440 11,658,596

General Land Office 2,459,401 50,558,501 53,017,902

Governor - Executive 238 238

Governor - Fiscal 50,190,170 4,077,152 54,267,322

Health and Human Services

57,770,578 17,835,628,465 17,893,399,043

Texas Historical Commission 169,334 1,989,881 2,159,215

Texas Department of Housing

Community Affairs
237,346,133 65,113,447 302,459,580

Department of Information

183,862 183,862

Department of Insurance 2,730,646 2,730,646

Texas Juvenile Probation

8,047,275 8,047,275

Texas State Library and

Archives Commission
11,095,573 11,095,573

Midwestern University 30,688,205 30,688,205

Office of Rural Community

125,238,520 22,867,931 148,106,451

Parks and Wildlife Dept. 23,432,315 48,881,992 72,314,307

Dept. of Public Service 871,926,942 102,853,343 974,780,285

Railroad Commission 6,357,203 6,357,203

Secretary of State 4,322,874 6,528,356 10,851,230

Soil and Water

Conservation Board
3,379,688 3,379,688

State Preservation Board 76,242 76,242

Stephen F. Austin

15,678 86,141,823 86,157,501

Supreme Court 1,683,269 1,683,269

Texas A&M University System

Prairie View A&M 101,352,570 101,352,570

Tarleton State 60,295,047 60,295,047

Texas A&M International Univ. 33,442,916 33,442,916

Texas A&M University 745,386 200,531,821 200,972,738

Texas A&M University

Commerce 59,336,646 59,336,646

Corpus Christi 164,713 68,362,633 68,527,346

Kingsville 225,661 52,540,463 52,766,124

Texarkana 90,330 4,506,818 4,597,148

at Galveston 55,431 15,010,238 15,065,669

Health Science Center 29,105,635 29,105,635

Agrilife Research 60,107,267 60,107,267

Agrilife Extension 37,779,175 37,779,175

Texas Engineering

Experiment Station 5,848,695 57,923,414 63,772,109

Texas Engineering

Extension Station 37,790,921 37,790,921

Texas Forest Service 11,349,387 11,349,387

Texas Transportation

Institute 3,935,369 3,935,369

Texas Veterinary Medical

Diagnostical Laboratory 297,997 297,997

West Texas A&M University 41,580,286 41,580,286

Texas Board of Nursing 50,000 50,000

Texas Commission on

Environmental Quality
3,789,813 54,141,375 57,931,188

Texas Education

4,351,027,405 92,820,381 4,443,847,786

Texas Public Finance

11,184,978 11,184,978

Texas Residential Construction

313,389 313,389

Texas Southern University 119,321,292 119,321,292

Texas State Technical College System 62,356,487 62,356,487

Texas State University System - Consolidated

Lamar University 58,601,097 58,601,097

Orange, Texas 8,695,276 8,695,276

Port Arthur, Texas 3,615,530 3,615,530

Institute of Technology 5,639,428 5,639,428

Sam Houston State

University 1,297,653 82,692,350 83,990,003

Sul Ross State Univ. 49,825 19,620,652 19,670,477

Texas State University

San Marcos 1,355,163 199,997,795 201,352,958

Texas Tech University System

Angelo State University 27,147,028 27,147,028

Texas Tech University 920,762 179,917,357 180,838,119

Health Science Center 983,984 59,009,130 59,993,114

Texas Veterans Commission 13,581,977 13,581,977

Texas Woman’s University 140,500 80,548,930 80,689,430

Texas Dept. of

279,543,641 2,493,671,363 2,773,215,004

University of Houston System

University of Houston 4,823,598 229,259,518 234,083,116

U of H - Clear Lake 40,923,601 40,923,601

U of H - downtown 59,144,724 59,144,724

U of H - Victoria 12,627,667 12,627,667

U of H System 42,214 42,214

University of North Texas System - Consolidated

University of North Texas 199,737,307 199,737,307

Health Science Center

Fort Worth 2,231,028 44,481,705 46,712,733

University of Texas System

University of Texas System 14,829,847 14,829,847

Health Center Tyler 919,770 8,300,827 9,220,597

Health Center Houston 13,876,411 168,116,237 181,992,648

Health Center

San Antonio 18,261,287 168,865,873 187,127,160

U of T Arlington 2,176,204 141,623,862 143,800,066

U of T Austin 31,198,311 590,992,731 622,191,042

U of T Brownsville 68,344,390 68,344,390

U of T Dallas 79,923,930 79,923,930

U of T El Paso 139,797,856 139,797,856

U of T San Antonio 1,705,801 212,447,106 214,152,907

U of T Tyler 31,564,429 31,564,429

U of T MD Anderson

Cancer Center
16,879,100 184,816,573 201,695,673

U of T Medical Branch

At Galveston 11,737,926 246,163,954 257,901,880

U of T Permian Basin 14,275,124 14,275,124

U of T Southwestern

Medical Ctr Dallas 10,464,753 221,027,658 231,492,411

U of T Pan American 98,254,988 98,254,988

Water Development

102,430,896 11,298,623 113,729,519

Work Force Comm. 764,671,674 5,135,208,627 5,899,880,301

Youth Commission, Texas 8,816,577 8,816,577


Total Expenditures
$8,190,543,063 $38,073,153,924 $46,263,696,987

Note: Any of these Agencies, Departments, Universities can be viewed in detail as a subcategory in this website: 

U.S. Annexation of Texas

Texas declares its independence from Mexico (March 1). Texan defenders of the Alamo are all killed during siege by the Mexican Army (Feb. 24–March 6). Texans defeat Mexicans at San Jacinto (April 21).

1837 Martin Van Buren is inaugurated as the eighth president (March 4). 1838 More than 15,000
Cherokee Indians are forced to march from Georgia to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma. Approximately 4,000 die from starvation and disease along the “Trail of Tears.” 1841 William Henry Harrison is inaugurated as the ninth president (March 4). He dies one month later (April 4) and is succeeded in office by his vice president, John Tyler. 1845 U.S. annexes Texas by joint resolution of Congress (March 1). James Polk is inaugurated as the 11th president (March 4). The term “manifest destiny” appears for the first time in a magazine article by John L. O'Sullivan (July–August). It expresses the belief held by many white Americans that the United States is destined to expand across the continent. 1846 Oregon Treaty fixes U.S.-Canadian border at 49th parallel; U.S. acquires Oregon territory (June 15). The Wilmot Proviso, introduced by Democratic representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania, attempts to ban slavery in territory gained in the Mexican War The proviso is blocked by Southerners, but continues to enflame the debate over slavery. 1846–1848 Mexican War: U.S. declares war on Mexico in effort to gain California and other territory in Southwest (May 13, 1846). War concludes with signing of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Feb. 2, 1848). Mexico recognizes Rio Grande as new boundary with Texas and, for $15 million, agrees to cede territory comprising present-day California, Nevada, Utah, most of New Mexico and Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.

Annexation of Texas
Joint Resolution of the Congress of the United States, March 1, 1845
28th Congress Second Session
Begun and held at the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia, on Monday the second day of December, eighteen hundred and forty-four.

Joint Resolution for annexing Texas to the United States.

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That Congress doth consent that the territory properly included within, and rightfully belonging to the Republic of Texas, may be erected into a new state, to be called the state of Texas, with a republican form of government, to be adopted by the people of said republic, by deputies in Convention assembled, with the consent of the existing government, in order that the same may be admitted as one of the states of this Union.

2. And be it further resolved, That the foregoing consent of Congress is given upon the following conditions, and with the following guarantees, to wit: First-said state to be formed, subject to the adjustment by this government of all questions of boundary that may arise with other governments; and the constitution thereof, with the proper evidence of its adoption by the people of said republic of Texas, shall be transmitted to the President of the United States, to be laid before Congress for its final action, on or before the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and forty-six. Second-said state, when admitted into the Union, after ceding to the United States all public edifices, fortifications, barracks, ports and harbors, navy and navy-yards, docks, magazines, arms, armaments, and all other property and means pertaining to the public defence belonging to said republic of Texas, shall retain all the public funds, debts, taxes, and dues of every kind which may belong to or be due and owing said republic; and shall also retain all the vacant and unappropriated lands lying within its limits, to be applied to the payment of the debts and liabilities of said republic of Texas; and the residue of said lands, after discharging said debts and liabilities, to be disposed of as said state may direct; but in no event are said debts and liabilities to become a charge upon the government of the United States. Third- New states, of convenient size, not exceeding four in number, in addition to said state of Texas, and having sufficient population, may hereafter, by the consent of said state, be formed out of the territory thereof, which shall be entitled to admission under the provisions of the federal constitution. And such states as may be formed out of that portion of said territory lying south of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north latitude, commonly known as the Missouri compromise line, shall be admitted into the Union with or without slavery, as the people of each state asking admission may desire. And in such state or states as shall be formed out of said territory north of said Missouri compromise line, slavery, or involuntary servitude, (except for crime,) shall be prohibited.

3. And be it further resolved, That if the President of the United States shall in his judgment and discretion deem it most advisable, instead of proceeding to submit the foregoing resolution to the Republic of Texas, as an overture on the part of the United States for admission, to negotiate with that Republic; then, Be it resolved, that a state, to be formed out of the present Republic of Texas, with suitable extent and boundaries, and with two representatives in Congress, until the next apportionment of representation, shall be admitted into the Union, by virtue of this act, on an equal footing with the existing states, as soon as the terms and conditions of such admission, and the cession of the remaining Texan territory to the United States shall be agreed upon by the governments of Texas and the United States: And that the sum of one hundred thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby, appropriated to defray the expenses of missions and negotiations, to agree upon the terms of said admission and cession, either by treaty to be submitted to the Senate, or by articles to be submitted to the two Houses of Congress, as the President may direct.


Speaker of the House of Representatives.
President, pro tempore, of the Senate.
Approv'd March 1. 1845

Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America.
Edited by Hunter Miller
Volume 4
Documents 80-121 : 1836-1846
Washington : Government Printing Office, 1934.

Discussion:Where did the United States get its Constitutional authority for the attempt to take the People’s lands when the superior Treaty laws over-ride US Constitutional law?

To all North American Sovereigns inhibiting the lands of Texas, ¾ of New Mexico, 1/2 of Colorado, Oklahoma Panhandle, Kansas above Oklahoma Panhandle and South of the Arkansas river, Counties of Wyoming at the 42nd Parallel.

•United States of America organic Constitution
•ARTICLE VI, paragraph #2;
“This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land, and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in this constitution of laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.”
In the year 1819 there was a Treaty officially signed by Spain and the United States setting the southern and eastern Boundaries between Spain and the United States. In that treaty the United States and Spain gave testimony by signature that neither party would ever tread on the agreed lands between them. In the above Article this Treaty became the supreme law of the land.

ARTICLE IIIThe boundary-line between the two countries, west of the Mississippi, shall begin on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the river Sabine, in the sea, continuing north, along the western bank of that river, to the 32d degree of latitude; thence, by a line due north, to the degree of latitude where it strikes the Rio Roxo of Nachitoches, or Red River; then following the course of the Rio Roxo westward, to the degree of longitude 100 west from London and 23 from Washington; then, crossing the said Red River, and running thence, by a line due north, to the river Arkansas; thence, following the course of the southern bank of the Arkansas, to its source, in latitude 42 north; and thence, by that parallel of latitude, to the South Sea. [Note added, today the South Sea is known as the Pacific Ocean.] The whole being as laid down in Melish's map of the United States, published at Philadelphia, improved to the first of January, 1818. But if the source of the Arkansas River shall be found to fall north or south of latitude 42, then the line shall run from the said source due south or north, as the case may be, till it meets the said parallel of latitude 42, and thence, along the said parallel, to the South Sea: All the islands in the Sabine, and the said Red and Arkansas Rivers, throughout the course thus described. To belong to the United States; but the use of the waters, and the navigation of the Sabine to the sea, and of the said rivers Roxo and Arkansas, throughout the extent of the said boundary, on their respective banks, shall be common to the respective inhabitants of both nations.

[Note added: South Sea at that time is the Pacific Ocean today.]

The two high contracting parties agree to cede and renounce all their rights, claims, and pretensions to the territories described by the said line, that is to say: The United States hereby cede to His Catholic Majesty, and renounce forever, all their rights, claims, and pretensions, to the territories lying west and south of the above-described line; and, in like manner, His Catholic Majesty cedes to the said United States all his rights, claims, and pretensions to any territories east and north of the said line, and for himself, his heirs, and successors, renounces all claim to the said territories forever.

Therefore it is affirmed by supreme law that the United States has never had any Constitutional or Treaty authority to tread on, sell, divide into parts, or promise to pay for any lands to the South and West of the Boundary lines set into supreme law by this treaty. The United States has formed the conglomerate Corporation of States in order to deceive the people into thinking they have authority over their lands when treaty law is supreme and gives no authority to any Corporations. There never ever has been a Treaty of Annexation agreed to between the United States of America and the Republic of Texas for claiming the lands of Texas. Therefore;
Now we know why the Senate voted in 1844, four to one against a Treaty of Annexation of Texas a sovereign republic with lands stretching to the Pacific. It would have been against the USA constitutional supreme law of the land.
Now we know the only way the United States could get control of the people of Texas was to incorporate by resolution (not treaty) and charter the State of Texas in 1845 and snooker the Texians using color of law into thinking this was a Government of and by the People. This scam is still running as of today.
Now we know how after the war with Mexico in 1848 the Corporate United States placed new permanent boundary lines to separate Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California and make territories out of them so as to incorporate them.
Now we know how the Corporate United States bypassed the Constitutions when breaking the Corporate State of Texas up into five separate parts in 1850 because a Corporation does not have Constitutional law only chartered corporate laws.
Now we know when the Texian people voted three to one to succeed in 1861 with their own Constitution then the corporate United States declared the vote null and void. What this meant was it was actually true because Texas never ceded their lands in the first place so the vote was declared null and void? You can’t secede from something that you never ceded. Also the Texian people could not secede from a United States as a corporate citizen (as a 14th amendment citizen). They were all registered to vote in the Corporation. What the Texian people did not know was their Nation with its lands was still intact and all they had to do was reclaim it. As we the republic of Texas congress did in 2005 and have operated as a de jure government since.
Now we know why the State of Texas Corporate Supreme Court ruled Lack of Jurisdiction over the de jure Republic of Texas in 1994. All Corporations have no Jurisdiction over a sovereign people of God and their Nation and all courts have been corporate courts for profit since 1845.
Now we know why the Corporate Court of the Netherlands The Hague ruled Lack of Jurisdiction over the de jure Republic of Texas because they also can only rule on corporate matters.

Resolutions, Treaties & Law
August 26, 1998

In June of 1844, the United States Senate considered a Treaty which had been submitted for their approval. The Treaty was the Treaty of Annexation, designed to bring another nation, The Republic of Texas, into the union of American States as one of the United States of America. The Treaty of Annexation was defeated in the US Senate by a vote of 35 to 16.

This should have ended the matter, or they should have resubmitted the Treaty of Annexation at a later date, when they could get it passed.

This never occurred.

Rather, the House of Representatives introduced a "Resolution of Annexation" in 1845, along with a document called "Articles of Annexation." After this resolution passed, the United States declared that Texas was now one of the states of the United States. Interesting conclusion, but let's take a look at the word "resolution."

The word "resolution," when it is regarding a resolution passed by an assembly or legislature, simply means they have agreed on their intent on some matter. A resolution is not a law. Of course, Black's Law Dictionary, sixth edition, says that a Joint Resolution when signed by the President has the effect of law. Why would this be stated when any other definition you look at says it is a statement of intent? In fact, further down in Black's it says outright that a resolution is not a law.

We must remember that Black's, as well as other dictionaries, defines words according to current usage. In other words, Congress passes a Joint Resolution, has the President sign it, and tells everybody it is law. Then Black's includes this in its definition!! Does this make it law? No, it does not.

A law must come from an act passed by congress with specific language.

It must have an Enactment Clause, such as "It is hereby enacted" and it must have an enabling clause. A resolution has neither of these.

It is very simple. A resolution is not a law and it applies only to the body that passes it.

Now lets look at the word treaty. What is a treaty? Simply stated, it is an agreement, a contract between two parties, usually independent countries. It takes the approval of both parties to become a valid contract or treaty. Where is the process for Texas to sign off on a Resolution of the U.S. Congress? They may have the will to agree with it, as was apparently the case with the People of Texas in 1845, but how would that agreement be expressed? Since they were a separate nation, it would be absolutely necessary for a treaty to be consummated for the agreement to be a lawful contract between the two parties, Texas and the United States.

Let me give an example or two. Has anyone ever seen the "Resolution of Peace" with the Cherokee Indians or any other tribe of Indians? How about the "Resolution of Amity" between the United States and Spain in 1819. NO! There were "Treaties of Peace" signed with the Indians and a "Treaty of Amity" signed with Spain in 1819. Why did they use a treaty rather than a resolution in these instances?

Remember to have a valid agreement in the form of a document, it must be signed by both parties. The statement of the Congress of the United States of their intent to have Texas as a State is not sufficient to complete an agreement between both parties. It is simply the statement of one of the parties as to their desire or intent.

If everybody had to abide by the intent or desires of everyone else without agreement, what a crazy world we would have! If this would work the U.S. could just pass a "Resolution for Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons" and, by golly, the WHOLE WORLD would have to abide by it. No more messing with those pesky treaties where they have to agree to it and NO MORE NUCLEAR WEAPONS! Of course, another nation might pass a "Resolution that all nations must have Nuclear Weapons." Now what?

In addition, according to their own founding document, the House of Representatives does not have the authority delegated to it by the People to initiate matters of foreign affairs. How then could they introduce a "Resolution of Annexation" of Texas? The answer to that is simple. They just acted outside their delegated authority. A practice that has become an everyday experience with the U.S. Government.

So the facts are very simple. There has never been a lawful process completed to make Texas one of the states of the United States.

Now lets address another issue. All political power is inherent in the People. This is a principle that has existed from time immemorial. It is a fact of the nature of things. This principle was stated in the American Declaration of Independence. It is included in the National Constitution for the Republic of Texas of 1836. It is stated in every "State" constitution written for Texas. We must remember that the People of Texas exercised this principle when they voted, in 1861 to withdraw from their unlawful union with the United States.

The vote, taken by county, was 75% in favor of withdrawal. This was the People of Texas exercising their political authority to determine their own fate and their own future. The United States, and its courts, maintains that the United States is a "perpetual union" and no one may leave or secede. How does this square with the statement in their own Declaration of Independence that "All political power is inherent in the people?" It simply does not.

There is, of course, the larger problem that Texas was never lawfully a part of the Union in the first place! And since the People of Texas have never voted to JOIN the union since they voted to WITHDRAW from it, how have we been forced to be a part of something that the People said they did not want to be a part?

Again the answer is simple. Military force. In 1865 the Union Army came into Texas and took over by military might. Is there a problem with this? There certainly is. A close examination of the Constitution for the United States of America discloses that there is no authority delegated by the People to the U.S. to conquer another nation by war and "take" it and make it a part of themselves. The U.S. Government can lawfully do ONLY that which the People give it authority to do.

The framers of the U.S. Constitution were attempting to set up a government which would not oppress or tyrannize its people. It is inconceivable to think that they would condone the "taking" of another country of politically sovereign people and enslave them or FORCE them into their bailiwick.

When the U.S. forced Texas and the southern states to be a part of the U.S., they not only enslaved the people involved there, but also enslaved the people of the northern states. If we the People, allow our government to enslave others, it will be only a short time until we too become its slaves. That is exactly what has occurred.

There are many, many issues that could be discussed here but suffice it to say that the People, all over the North American continent, are waking up and realizing that they have indeed been enslaved by the government that is supposed to protect their rights and liberties and serve them. The issue of Texas Annexation, or lack thereof, is only proof positive that this enslavement has taken place and is ongoing.

In summary, let me restate, Texas has never been LAWFULLY joined to the United States, has expressed its will to be sovereign and independent (in 1836 and again in 1861) and has been a CAPTIVE NATION of the United States since 1865. Remember, this is a violation by the United States of their own law, the law given to them by the People who created the U.S. Government.

And remember, a resolution is NOT a law. Even if a resolution were law, one country cannot pass a law that binds another country. A Treaty is only law as long as the parties continue to agree to abide by it. It is a self-imposed law by agreement or contract. Then there is always the law of the gun. I submit to you that we are now subjected to the law of the gun imposed by a de facto United States government with the cooperation of THE STATE OF TEXAS government.

One man, when asked what he wanted the government to do for him replied, "Guard the shores, deliver the mail, and leave me the heck alone!" Good Answer!

The world, along with all Texans, needs to recognize the true, lawful status of Texas as an Independent, Sovereign Nation. The only way to resolve this is for the People, once again, to express and utilize their inherent political authority and re-establish our substantive, God-given freedoms and liberties and re-form our government into one which does what it is supposed to do. And that is: to protect the rights and liberties of the People from all enemies, both foreign and domestic.



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